The popular wisdom (and some other health care professional recently updated) argues that it is desirable that all pregnant win a kilo per month. A misguided statement, as well as the suggestion that pregnant women have to “eat for two”. Not all mothers should win a kilo per month nor can indulge with food and binging with the excuse that calories nourish the child (they feed mostly fat cells of mother and child).
The recommendation of weight gain in pregnancy is established according to the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the mother before becoming state. To calculate the BMI of the mother weight divided by their height squared. Thus, a woman weighing 60 kilos and measure 1.69 meters will have a BMI of 21. The following table, drawn up on the basis of guidelines established by the Institute of Medicine of the United States in 2009, detailing what the recommended weight gain in pregnancy depending on pre pregnancy BMI.
If before pregnancy you have low weight (BMI <18.5), it is recommended to gain 0.51 kg per week during the 2nd and 3rd quarter. In total: between 12.5 kg and 18 kg over the entire gestation.
If you have a prepregnancy normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 24.9), we suggest increasing 0.42 kg per week during the 2nd and 3rd quarter. In total: between 11.5 kg and 16 kg throughout gestation.
If you suffer prepregnancy overweight (BMI> 25), is recommended to take 0.28 kg per week during the 2nd and 3rd quarter. In total: between 7 kg and 11.5 kg throughout pregnancy.
If you suffer prepregnancy obesity (BMI> 30), it should climb 0.22 kg per week during the 2nd and 3rd quarter. Total: from 5 kg to 9 kg throughout the entire pregnancy.
If you have a normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 24.9) before pregnancy, but it is a pregnancy of twins or twins, it is advisable to earn between 1.8 kg and 2.7 kg in the first quarter and 0, 7 kg a week during the 2nd and 3rd quarter. In total: between 16 kg and 20 kg throughout pregnancy.
If you have a normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 24.9) before pregnancy, but it is a triplet pregnancy is recommended up 0.7 kg a week throughout pregnancy. In total: 23 kg.
Unfortunately, less than a third of pregnant women meet the above guidelines: most gain weight above the recommended levels, as noted a study published in March 2012 in Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism. Gain too much weight during pregnancy is an important risk factor for the mother suffering from gestational diabetes but also obesity. Even increases the chances that the future child is obese, so it makes sense to address the prevention of excessive weight gain in the nine months that pregnancy.
How not to Gain too much Weight During Pregnancy?
To answer this question, nothing better than having an impressive study that reviewed thoroughly what interventions had shown success to control excessive weight gain in pregnant women. The research, published in the journal American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in October 2010 and coordinated by Ina Streuling concluded that the most effective interventions are those:
- Containing dietary advice regarding the characteristics of a healthy diet
- Educating mothers about the importance of increasing physical activity
- And they include regular monitoring of weight mothers.
Make it “diet”? No. Calorie restriction in pregnant women are overweight or gain more weight than recommended makes little sense. Kramer and Kakuma showed in 2003 (in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) that this strategy, besides not being beneficial, it can be harmful to the baby (could limit the growth of the fetus). So much for the standard low – calorie diets, because when we enter the realm of miracle diets are just the “could” are 100% discouraged.
Healthy diet? Yes. Follow a healthy diet is the key to avoiding damage on maternal and child health in the short or long term. Such a diet has these three characteristics:
- It is based on the consumption of plant foods, i.e., fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and, of course, whole grains (brown rice, whole wheat pasta, whole wheat bread).
- There is a lesser presence (although rare) fish, low-fat dairy and vegetable oils.
- There is a very low intake of: refined grains (white pasta, white bread, white rice, etc.), sugar or sugary foods (cakes, pastries, sugary drinks), and red and processed meats.
Give up eating wrong? Yes. Said Antoine de Saint-Exupéry that perfection is not achieved when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing more to remove. So it is with food. Not so much to add ” super foods “, but rather to remove food that has a high caloric density but few nutritional properties, as detailed below:
Salty snacks, smoothies, pastries, chocolates, candies, confectionery, sweets, sausages, candy, slushies, ice cream, horchata, butter, mayonnaise, pastries, desserts, greasy cheese, soft drinks , pastries, sauces, sorbets, candies, juices .
And if I have Gestational Diabetes?
The text ‘ Gestational diabetes: is it necessary to remove carbohydrates ‘, published in Eroski Consumer in August 2013, he summarized the results of an evaluation conducted by the prestigious Cochrane Collaboration, which reviewed various dietary interventions for gestational diabetes. The research evaluated diets with different glycemic index , with more dietary fiber , less calories, more monounsaturated (the characteristic of olive oil, but also present in other oils or food) fat and, of course, diets with different content in carbohydrates . His conclusion? That none of these diets is more risky and more beneficial to the child or maternal health. This facilitates the answer to which diet to follow in the case of having gestational diabetes: A healthy diet, no more no less.